Early cancer diagnosis

The identification of a patient with cancer at an early stage is the main strategy of anti -cancer struggle in all countries of the world. Only those whose cancer is found in 0 or 1 stages have 97% of the chances of this disease. To this end, state anti -cancer programs apply in developed countries.

The basis of early diagnosis is determined by the level of oncological alertness, which includes:

– knowledge of early symptoms of cancer;

– knowledge of the clinic, diagnosis, medical examination and treatment of patients with precancerous conditions;

– knowledge of the principles of the organization of cancer and the purposeful direction of the patient to the oncological institution;

– A thorough comprehensive examination of all those who applied to the medical institution (conducting a mandatory clinical minimum of examinations – OKMO);

– In all cases of the so -called difficult diagnosis, installation on the primary exception in the patient of cancer.

The implementation of knowledge and skills provided for oncological alertness is carried out in practice:

– in the daily work of the doctor;

– When organizing and conducting preventive examinations of women over 35 and men – over 45 years old.

Attracting all people of these age groups to a prosecutor is an ideal way to solve early diagnosis and reduce, thus, mortality from cancer.

The implementation of the anti -cancer program is carried out in stages:

Stage 1 – preparatory: informing the country’s population about well -known risk factors for the occurrence of preventive diseases and cancer, methods of their prevention and the need for each person of “critical” age 35-45 years to contact the clinic to conduct RAM for timely diagnosis of the disease.

Stage 2 – screening: selection of people of risk groups (certain by publishing profiles in newspapers or when people apply to the clinic);

Stage 3: Analysis of profiles or assessment of data from the collected history and physics (identifying more than 3 risk factors) and the selection of these patients for their in -depth examination.

Stage 4: Conducting OKMO in the examination, followed by in -depth X -ray, endoscopic and cytomorphological examination of organs and systems that have the greatest connection with identified positive screening tests and symptoms. The category of people who are subject to such an updated diagnosis also include patients with prevention conditions.

Mandatory clinical minimum surveys (OKMO) includes:

– Collecting anamnesis of systems in order to identify signs of impaired organs, as well as risk factors for cancer, followed by in -depth (complex) survey of organs and systems.

– Examination of the skin, mucous membranes, peripheral lymph nodes, methodological examination of the chest glands in the observation room, for men – examination and probing of the external genitalia and finger examination of the rectum in order to identify the pathology of the prostate and distal rectum; In the observation room for women – a vaginal study with a fence of strokes from the cervix, as well as rectal examination. An inspection of the thoracic glands is also carried out here.

– Fluorography of the chest organs in 3 projections.

– Blood and urine test.

– Ultrasound of the liver, kidneys, uterus and appendages.

– Control mammography and ultrasound of the mammary glands from the age of 35 at least 1 time every 2 years for healthy women.

– Study of feces for hidden blood once every 2 years from the age of 45.

– In some cases, magnetic resonance tomography of the brain, the central nervous system, the organs of the pelvis, the abdominal cavity, etc.D.

Solving the problem of reducing mortality from oncological diseases is possible subject to the implementation of anti -cancer programs, support and control their implementation by the state, creating an effective system for improving doctors on the basis of oncology departments. The creation of conditions in the state for encouraging people to control and maintain their health, take care of it.

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